By artificially changing the number of protons in the nucleus, one can create new substances?

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2022-02-07 12:44:20

In fact, these 26 elements completely exist in nature, otherwise it would not be possible to be produced artificially. But the problem is that these elements are either too rare in nature or have too short a half-life for people to find a way to create them. For example, some gaseous elements are difficult to survive for 1 second under natural conditions and can only be obtained by man through its creation.

The periodic table is the basis for the design of man-made elements

The periodic table of the elements is one of mankind’s greatest scientific discoveries. It lists a number of seemingly unrelated elements and gradually forms a complete system of natural elements, spurring the development of modern chemistry and revealing the mysteries of natural substances. nature, thereby allowing people to have a deeper understanding of the laws of nature.

The first person to publish the periodic table was the Russian chemist Mendeleev, he gave the first generation periodic table in 1869. After that, chemists from all over the world continued to introduce and improve the periodic table. The periodic table has gradually become an irreplaceable tool of modern chemistry.

There are more than 170 periodic tables of elements in the world. In the periodic table of elements, the elements are arranged by atomic number, the smallest is the number 1, one row is the period, the other is the group; Atomic radius decreases from left to right and increases in order from top to bottom.

The periodic table of elements currently has 7 major groups, 7 subgroups, group VIII and 0 groups. The elements are numbered in the order they are listed on the periodic table, and that number is the atomic number. The relationship between the atomic number and the atomic structure of an element is: number of protons = number of atoms = number of extraterrestrial electrons = number of nuclear charge.

By artificially changing the number of protons in the nucleus, one can create new substances?  - Photo 2.

When Mendeleev’s periodic table was first established, there were only 63 elements. He arranged the elements in order of size and successfully predicted gallium, scandium, and germanium that had not been discovered at the time; As the periodic table develops over time, people continue to discover the Law of the arrangement of the elements, constantly discover the missing elements in the middle, deepen the understanding of the properties of the elements.

Therefore, one of the great meanings of the periodic table is to guide scientists to find the missing elements. These elements may not be present in nature, so many scientists have tried to create them artificially. At this time, it is known that the properties of elements are determined by the number of protons in the atom, so just changing the number of protons in the atom can get a new element.

For example, in the periodic table of elements already exist molybdenum number 42 and element ruthenium number 44. It is known that the number of protons in the nucleons of these two elements is 42 and 44 respectively, so there must be a new element. in the middle has a proton number of 43.

By artificially changing the number of protons in the nucleus, one can create new substances?  - Photo 3.

But how to make the protons in the nucleon change in number? Scientists have been tinkering for years.

Until 1937, physicist Ernest Lawrence at the University of California, Berkeley, used the cyclotron he invented to “bombard” the molybdenum nucleus of element 41 with the deuterium nucleus of element 1, and obtained the atom. element 43. This is the first man-made element that man has, it is named “technetium” (Tc), and “technetium” in Greek means “man-made”.

26 man-made elements obtained by “additional”

Currently, humans have discovered a total of 118 elements in the universe, of which 92 are obtained from nature and 26 are obtained from man-made production. The methods of artificially producing the element are all done by the method of “addition”.

By artificially changing the number of protons in the nucleus, one can create new substances?  - Photo 4.

What does “additional” mean? It is using two elements with smaller atomic numbers to fuse into a larger element, in fact this is nuclear fusion. And to carry out this type of reaction is not an easy thing, it requires extremely high pressure and temperature to make the nuclei fuse together. Therefore, although it was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century that “addition” could be used to obtain new elements, they were unable to do so because science and technology had not yet been developed. develop to meet it.

It was not until 1931 that Lawrence invented the cyclotron, which would accelerate charged particles by the combined mechanism of electric and magnetic fields, then collide the two types of atomic nuclei provided and create atoms artificially new.

All man-made elements are obtained by this “additional” method. For example, scientists bombarded californium with atomic number 98 with boron with atomic number 5 to obtain cymbidium with atomic number 103; bombarded lead chromium with atomic number 82 to obtain Element 106 which is xi; Using calcium with atomic number 20 bombard californium with atomic number 98 to get Og with atomic number 118.

Human discoveries go on and on without end

So far, there are 26 man-made elements, which are: Technetium 43 (T), Promethium 61 (Pm), Americium 95 (Am), Curium 96 (Cm), Berkelium 97 (Bk), Californium 98 (Cf), No 99 Einsteinium (Es), No. 100 Einsteinium (Fm), No. 101 Mendium (Md), No. 102 Nuo (None), No. 103 Cymbalium (Lr), No. 104 Mandium Lu (Rf), No. 105 Mandium Du (Db), No. 106 Jin Xi (Sg), No. 107 Jin Bo (Bh), No. 108 Jin He (Hs), No. 109 Jin Mai (Mt), No. 110 Zine (Ds), No. 111 Chi ( Rg), No. 112 Cn (Cn), No. 113 Cauer (Uut/Nh), No. 114 N (Fl), No. 115 Y (Mc), No. 116 Nam (Lv), No. 117 Ishida (Ts), No. 118 Qi Austria (Og).

At this point, all the vacancies in the periodic table of elements have been filled, except for number 43 and number 61, the man-made elements are all radioactive, extremely rare in nature, extremely rare. They are unstable or have short half-lives making them difficult to obtain in the wild, and some are difficult to maintain even if they are man-made.

For example, the 118th element Og, scientists have experimented countless times in the cyclotron, and only in 2003 and 2005 they got 3 atoms respectively. Only 3 atoms can be detected with extremely precise devices. The element’s half-life is just 12 milliseconds, which means it disappears instantly.

Many scientists are still synthesizing elements with higher numbers, and even some names have been chosen, such as element 119 Uue, element 120 Ubn and element 121, etc., but it is becoming increasingly difficult. possess these elements, and perhaps they exist only in the imagination. How many numbers the periodic table of elements can be arranged in is still quite controversial, and we can only wait and see.


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