History of the famous cars of the two Soviet-German factions (Part 2)

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2021-03-23 20:51:42

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The German side

In Germany, almost all factories supply cars for the Wehrmacht. In the payroll of the German army, there are a full range of models from inexpensive masses, sedans to convertibles or even limousines. When World War II started, the production of conventional passenger cars was gradually phased out. The last factory to assemble the line up to before 1943 was Mercedes-Benz.

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The war turned out to be much more difficult and lengthy than expected by German officers. And gradually, special vehicles designed for military use also began to appear to replace passenger cars and civil trucks in the German army motor vehicle.

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Since the mid-1930s, many German companies began to manufacture command and light reconnaissance vehicles with simplified hulls. The Germans called these cars Kübelwagen (the German word kübel means “pot”) due to their funny shape.

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The design principle of these “engine pots” is very simple: remove all the unnecessary stuff from a normal car. The bodywork was as simple as possible, the doors and sides were straight, even in many cars there were no doors; Without side window glass, the hood is simply fabric. In return, the tires look more fierce than civilian cars.

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It is rumored that a similar model was built at the KIM factory in Moscow from a KIM-10-51 convertible in the fall of 1941. However, details about this vehicle are available. Can’t find it again.

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The idea of ​​a “pot-shaped” car in Germany has been adopted and improved by the design department of Ferdinand Porsche. On the basis of the very popular Volkswagen KDF Kafer (also known as Volkswagen Beetle), the compact four-door KDF 82 with a dark design. simplified. This car has the body panels and the hood is straightened, thin and the engine behind the capacity of 23.5 horsepower. These factors make KDF 82 stand out because of its simple repairability, high reliability and very light weight.

The Soviet Union

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Go back to the Soviets, where all-wheel drive vehicles based on the “Emka” model appeared before the war. The Soviet carmakers built a huge family of vehicles including a sedan, a convertible, and a pickup. But pre-production was so time-consuming that it wasn’t until 1941 that the first GAZ-61 sedans appeared. And in the entire war, less than 200 of these vehicles were assembled.

Thanks to its excellent off-road capabilities and “humility”, the GAZ-61 has left a special warm impression on the driver of Marshal Zhukov, Mr. Alexander Buchin.

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On the basis of this sedan, at the beginning of the war, Soviet engineers built an excellent military vehicle, the GAZ-61-417. It’s a full-time four-wheel drive convertible pickup, with the cabin minimized: no roof, no doors. And although it is minimized to the limit, the Gorky car factory cannot bring this model into mass production on a large scale. As a result, in 1941 only less than four dozen GAZ-61-417 were produced.

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Similar problem occurs with the SUV models GAZ-64 and GAZ-67. The managers were not qualified to mass-produce many such models at the same time, so they held a competition in 1941 to choose a model to be produced on a large scale. Competitors of the GAZ-64 is the NATI-AR model with a gasoline engine with a capacity of 57 horsepower – considered to be more complete than the engine of the GAZ-64.

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GAZ-64 car with a serial engine with a capacity of 54 horsepower, no gearbox. However, these weaknesses are offset by the ability to act as a “tractor”. It was initially recommended to use only good road towing capabilities. Later, the engineers perfected the design so that all mass-produced models had this capability.

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But the difficulty does not stop there. All power of the plant was put on the GAZ-MM “tons and a half” models, the three-axis GAZ-AAA and light tanks. Until 1943 only 762 GAZ-64s were built. After being upgraded and increased in size, this model was designated as GAZ-67, while from 1944 onwards it was GAZ-67B.

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Production line GAZ-67

This car wasn’t bad, but its role in war was nothing short of outstanding. Until 1945, only less than five thousand were produced, while there were nearly 40 thousand “world famous” Willys MB of America used in the Soviet Red Army under the policy. Lend-Lease * of America.

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Willys MB is a legendary model

Willys MB is an extremely successful model thanks to the gearbox, a powerful 60-horsepower engine, easier to control than the GAZ-67 and a very good braking system. American-style Willys MB cars have received worldwide respect – including Soviet drivers.

After the war, GAZ-67 continued to be produced until 1952. Along with Willys MB of the US, these two models still “diligently” served for decades in factories, factories or even. privately acquired.

* Lend-Lease is the name of a law passed by the US Congress on March 11, 1941, which gives the President of the United States the right to grant military aid (determined by Congress) money and materials and weapons for any government and country that the President considers “that country’s security is of importance to the security of America”.

Accordingly, from 1941 to August 1945, the United States provided a great deal of food, oil, and equipment free of charge to Great Britain, France, China, and then the Soviet Union and its allies. .

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